The “Camera Obscura” which literary means “dark room” has been known since the time of Ibn al Haithem, an Arab scholar. It is a 19th century optical device and was usually used by artists such as Johannes Vermeer. This devise was used to make quick sketches in the field by the use of a pinhole in a window blind that forms an inverted image of an scene on an opposite wall of a dark room
This process was first described In 1568 by the Venetian Daniel Barbaro. He suggested that “the image would be improved by covering it with a disk having a small hole in the centre, a very early reference to stopping down a lens to increase the depth of focus”.
In 1685, Johann Zahn invented the box form of Camera Obscura. This was used for sketching. The tracing paper of the “Camera Obscura” was placed on the missing glass inside the folding hood and the image was reflected onto the paper by a 45° mirror placed inside the box.
“This example is in the historical apparatus collection at Transylvania University, and is of the form used by William Henry Fox Talbot for his experiments with photography in the 1830s.”